Friday, December 26, 2014

Кыдыр Иса

Исаны же тааныгансыңарбы же тангансыңарбы? 

Saturday, December 6, 2014

азгыруучу


"... Алар өз жолдорун тандап алышты, алардын жаны өздөрүнүн жийиркеничтүү нерселеринен ыракат алат. Ошондуктан Мен алардын азгыруучу нерселерин пайдаланам, аларга коркунучтуу нерсени каптатам, анткени Мен чакырганда, эч ким жооп берген жок, Мен сүйлөгөндө, алар укпай коюшкан. Бирок алар Менин көз алдымда жамандык кылышты, Мага жакпаган нерсени тандап алышты" дейт Олуя-пайгамбарлардын бири.
Ыйык китеп өзгөрүлгөн деп окупай жүргөндөр Жараткандын сүйлөгөнүн уга алышпайт го. 

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Faith Uprooted the Iron Curtain

We're celebrating 25 years since the fall of the iron curtain and the wall between East and West Germany.  I'm reminded of all the faith movements that led up to that moment and the overwhelming sense that the whole thing was a God-thing.

In our prosperity one may forget God, but he was the strength for millions in times of oppression. Thank God their gentle faith uprooted tyranny and brought about a perfect and bloodless revolution.
God is good.

Lithuania's Hill of Crosses
Pope John Paul II's "Fear Not" speech in Poland (1979)
Prayer for Peace in Leipzig, East Germany (Oct. 9, 1989)
Pan European Picnic (August 9, 1989)
Prague's Velvet Revolution  (Nov. 19, 1989)


Thursday, November 6, 2014

Movie Review: Kurmanjan Datka - Queen of the Mountains Movie


Updated (November 28, 2014): I watched the last showing of Kurmanjan Datka in Beverly Hills last night. It was awesome.  I liked the movie so much more and the story gaps that I thought existed when I first saw it are not there.  I simply wasn't following all the characters or picking up all the dialogue.  The cinematography, scenery, and horse riding are spectacular.  The historic piece is well told and accurate.  There are many characters who change over time, so I recommend watching the movie twice. 

Here's an updated version of the November 5th posting:

I watched the Kurmanjan Datka - Queen of the Mountains movie last night in Hollywood. Kurmanjan Datka has always been a hero of mine. She influenced history so her descendants could have their own nation today.

The film is beautiful and the acting is wonderful.  Some non-Kyrgyz audiences, unfamiliar with Central Asian history, will have difficulty following all the characters, but the sheer beauty of the film's story, scenery, and cinematography highlighted with Kyrgyz culture override the complexity and carry the audience into a beautiful world.  The second viewing takes us deeper into the unending intensity and passion led with wonderful acting and tangible tension. The final climax of the movie was one of the best I've encountered.  Yes, I was holding back the tears.

Many epic scenes are etched into my mind's eye. I do think the film could be a contender for oscars, especially cinematography and female actress. Let me say again, you have to watch this movie twice. On second viewing I think the screenplay is also worthy of a nod.

I'm proud of the Kyrgyz - one of the most amazing nations on earth.  I'm honored that God brought to live among this ancient nation.

Kurmanjan Datka Trailer

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Halloween

I lived overseas too long to enjoy Halloween - seen too many real haunted houses to laugh at the imitations; witnessed the effects of a real witch's curse too many times to consider the plastic version cute; met too many victims of ghosts to enjoy Casper; and heard too many descriptions of death too smile when I pass my neighbor's yard.  I developed this position because I respected the Kyrgyz whom I lived among, valued their stories, and entered their world...  Now I'm jaded.

I guess I didn't have to enter the Kyrgyz world.  I could have position myself within the detached ethnocentric and imperialistic world of the nation's historic overlords.

Whatever.  I've lived in two worlds.  The Kydyr covers us, not fear. 

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Beloved Object of Worldwide Hatred and Censorship

To the question, "who or what is the most beloved object of worldwide hatred and censorship?" - one would say it was the Jews and the Jewish nation have historically been "the problem". Another would contend that the crucified Isa-Jesus is the most censored. And still a third would claim the literary masterpiece banned from Atheistic Communism to Islamic Republics was both the most loved and hated of all.

Upon deeper analysis we might see a common thread linking the three and a common nemesis behind the attacks on all three.  Jews are known to many in the Muslim world and beyond as God's Chosen, descendants of the ancient prophets; Isa is history's most famous individual Semite, a.k.a. the messiah in both the Koran and Bible; and the third is the great anthology of Semitic sages, wisdom, oracles, history, etc., often referred to as the Word of God or Allah's previous books/revelations.  Each one of this trilogy stands alone, head and shoulders above others in their perspective categories.  The Manas Epic (itself a trilogy) has been blessed to harbor some of this favored greatness

Monday, October 20, 2014

Чындыкты издебегендер чындыкты таппайт

 Кыргыз журналисттери маектешпей эле жаза берсе болобу?

Обзор кыргызских сми

“Хизб-ут Тахрир”, Двуногий Кыргыз-трактор, Манас-Моисей и кое-что другое

Сия абракадабра отнюдь не плод моей фантазии. А лишь маленькая иллюстрация того мутного псевдорелигиозного потока, обрушившегося на пока еще не замутненное духовным фанатизмом и экстремизмом сознание народа Кыргызстана.

Оказать воздействие на наши умы пытаются разношерстные религиозные и околорелигиозные секты, сторонники крайне фундаменталистских взглядов. Если в христианском мире таковыми являются разного рода свидетели, адвентисты, мунисты и разветвления протестантского толка, то среди мусульман (точнее, азиатов) наибольшую агрессивность проявляют т.н. хизбутовцы, любопытные сведения о которых опубликовала газета “Аргумент”: “Хизб–ут Тахрир” (“Партия освобождения”) — политическая организация, зародившаяся в арабской Палестине. Отвергнута и преследуется правительственными кругами и общественностью арабского мира. Поскольку там хорошо разбираются в исламе и знают его истинные ценности, в целях недопущения искажения святых канонов данной религии хизбутовцев попросту прогнали, словно еретиков. После чего “Хизб–ут Тахрир” устремился в Центральную Азию, где население настоящего ислама еще не познало”.
Далее газета указывает на разнузданный экстремизм данной религиозной партии, ведущей подрывную деятельность среди мирных кыргызстанцев, подстрекая их к нарушению конституционных основ государства. С этой точки зрения проводимая хизбутовцами под знаменем ислама подрывная деятельность на юге Кыргызстана на деле диcкредитирует данную религию, сеет вражду между ней и другими верами. Исключительность, которой хизбуттахрирцы наделяют себя, сравнима разве что с фашизмом, заключает газета.
Продолжая тему, кыргызско–турецкая “Заман–Кыргызстан”, ссылаясь на недавнее заявление лидера одной политической партии, что шесть процентов кыргызстанцев ради разрешения своих социально–экономических проблем готовы на крайне радикальные шаги, указывает, что подобные “Хизб–утТахриру” экстремистские группы свои ряды пополняют за счет именно таких радикалов. Проникновению эмиссаров от лжеислама способствует также наша политика открытых дверей, резюмирует “Заман–Кыргызстан”.
Официальная “Эркин–Тоо” поведала о довольно–таки любопытном случае. Некий Ричард Хьюит из американского города Санта–Моника три года тому назад приехал в Узбекистан, чтобы внедрить в сознание его граждан каноны доселе неизвестной, состоящей из смеси шаманизма, тотемизма, христианства и ислама, коктейль–религии. А когда более просвещенные в делах духовных потомки Тимура вежливо выпроводили странного миссионера из страны, мистер Ричард, недолго думая, перекрестился в кыргыза–мусульманина, приняв новое имя Рысбек, поселился в нарынской глухомани. Экологически чистый в религиозном плане и гостеприимный нрав кыргызов так понравился Ричарду–Рысбеку, что он вмиг воспылал неодолимой любовью к местной девушке, женился на ней и стал жить–поживать да добра наживать в отдаленном горном селении. Благо и специальность у новокрещенного кыргыза была нужная, агрономическая.
Однако наш герой, автор уникального интернационализированного религиозного течения, оскорбительным для себя посчитал заниматься какими–то удобрениями, когда его звали голоса нескольких религий. И начал он осваивать кыргызстанскую духовную целину. Короче, результатом “просветительской” работы Рысбека стало то, что поверившие в его псевдорелигию некоторые нарынчане своими шаманскими заклинаниями, импровизированными индуистско–христианско–исламскими трактатами начали пугать нормальных людей. Между тем мистер–мырза Рысбек–Ричард Хьюит времени даром не терял. Написал своеобразную книжонку в стиле небезызвестного Салмана Рушди, где не только попытался смешивать шаманизм и тотемизм с исламом и христианством, но выдавал пророка Мухаммеда за Иисуса Христа. И... придумал нового бога по имени Машайык. А Манас Великодушный, по нему, не кто иной, как пророк Моисей в доспехах и с копьем в руке. Кстати, в предисловии к своему “творению” миссионер из Санта–Моники шлет благодарность многим кыргызстанцам, в том числе некоему Двуногому Кыргызу–трактору за гостеприимство и помощь. В заключение “Эркин–Тоо” указывает на ту опасность, которая таится в “больном произведении” сего миссионера.
Как бы логично исходя из такого положения вещей, газета “Аалам” задается вопросом: “Чем же занимается Духовное управление мусульман Кыргызстана?”. В опубликованном на ее страницах письме бишкекчанин Талас уулу Семетей упрекает духовных чинов республики за пассивность и выжидательную позицию в пропаганде истинных ценностей ислама среди кыргызстанцев. В доказательство привел малочисленность хороших изданий на эту тему. В то же время наша духовная знать проморгала издание на турецкие гуманитарные средства важной книги о биографии пророка Мухаммеда, переведенной с турецкого языка с непростительными, местами позорящими данную религию ошибками.
Упрек читателя в адрес религиозного ведомства республики в полной мере можно отнести к Госкомиссии по делам религий при правительстве КР, которой вполне по силам повлиять не только на ситуацию с изданием правильной духовной литературы, но и более качественно выполнять возложенные на нее функции на религиозном фронте.
Главные причины разнузданности псевдорелигий и разномастных миссионеров в Кыргызстане, податливости местного населения их влиянию отметило радио “Азаттык”. Это — состояние уровня жизни, экономические трудности страны и отсутствие четко обозначенной государственной идеологии.
                                                           * * *
У меня на столе маленькая книжечка, хадисы учений пророка Мухаммеда, переведенная на кыргызский язык моим другом писателем и хорошим человеком Мирзохалимом Каримовым. 539 хадис которого гласит: “Да найдет себе место в аду тот, кто, прикрываясь Моим именем, придумывает ложные учения!”.

Friday, August 15, 2014

If a Musical Maestro... then what about a Messiah?

If a musical maestro like Joshua Bell goes unnoticed, then couldn't the same thing happen to the universal messiah?  Joshua Bell's incognito concert is a picture of Yohanan's (John's) messianic reference:
10 He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. 11 He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.

Joshua/Yeshua
John/Yohanan

Pearls Before Breakfast
Can one of the nation's great musicians cut through the fog of a D.C. rush hour? Let's find out.
By Gene Weingarten
Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, April 8, 2007HE EMERGED FROM THE METRO AT THE L'ENFANT PLAZA STATION AND POSITIONED HIMSELF AGAINST A WALL BESIDE A TRASH BASKET. By most measures, he was nondescript: a youngish white man in jeans, a long-sleeved T-shirt and a Washington Nationals baseball cap. From a small case, he removed a violin. Placing the open case at his feet, he shrewdly threw in a few dollars and pocket change as seed money, swiveled it to face pedestrian traffic, and began to play.
It was 7:51 a.m. on Friday, January 12, the middle of the morning rush hour. In the next 43 minutes, as the violinist performed six classical pieces, 1,097 people passed by. Almost all of them were on the way to work, which meant, for almost all of them, a government job. L'Enfant Plaza is at the nucleus of federal Washington, and these were mostly mid-level bureaucrats with those indeterminate, oddly fungible titles: policy analyst, project manager, budget officer, specialist, facilitator, consultant.
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Each passerby had a quick choice to make, one familiar to commuters in any urban area where the occasional street performer is part of the cityscape: Do you stop and listen? Do you hurry past with a blend of guilt and irritation, aware of your cupidity but annoyed by the unbidden demand on your time and your wallet? Do you throw in a buck, just to be polite? Does your decision change if he's really bad? What if he's really good? Do you have time for beauty? Shouldn't you? What's the moral mathematics of the moment?
On that Friday in January, those private questions would be answered in an unusually public way. No one knew it, but the fiddler standing against a bare wall outside the Metro in an indoor arcade at the top of the escalators was one of the finest classical musicians in the world, playing some of the most elegant music ever written on one of the most valuable violins ever made. His performance was arranged by The Washington Post as an experiment in context, perception and priorities -- as well as an unblinking assessment of public taste: In a banal setting at an inconvenient time, would beauty transcend?
The musician did not play popular tunes whose familiarity alone might have drawn interest. That was not the test. These were masterpieces that have endured for centuries on their brilliance alone, soaring music befitting the grandeur of cathedrals and concert halls.
The acoustics proved surprisingly kind. Though the arcade is of utilitarian design, a buffer between the Metro escalator and the outdoors, it somehow caught the sound and bounced it back round and resonant. The violin is an instrument that is said to be much like the human voice, and in this musician's masterly hands, it sobbed and laughed and sang -- ecstatic, sorrowful, importuning, adoring, flirtatious, castigating, playful, romancing, merry, triumphal, sumptuous.
So, what do you think happened?
HANG ON, WE'LL GET YOU SOME EXPERT HELP.
Leonard Slatkin, music director of the National Symphony Orchestra, was asked the same question. What did he think would occur, hypothetically, if one of the world's great violinists had performed incognito before a traveling rush-hour audience of 1,000-odd people?
"Let's assume," Slatkin said, "that he is not recognized and just taken for granted as a street musician . . . Still, I don't think that if he's really good, he's going to go unnoticed. He'd get a larger audience in Europe . . . but, okay, out of 1,000 people, my guess is there might be 35 or 40 who will recognize the quality for what it is. Maybe 75 to 100 will stop and spend some time listening."
So, a crowd would gather?
"Oh, yes."
And how much will he make?
"About $150."
Thanks, Maestro. As it happens, this is not hypothetical. It really happened.
"How'd I do?"
We'll tell you in a minute.
"Well, who was the musician?"
Joshua Bell.
"NO!!!"
A onetime child prodigy, at 39 Joshua Bell has arrived as an internationally acclaimed virtuoso. Three days before he appeared at the Metro station, Bell had filled the house at Boston's stately Symphony Hall, where merely pretty good seats went for $100. Two weeks later, at the Music Center at Strathmore, in North Bethesda, he would play to a standing-room-only audience so respectful of his artistry that they stifled their coughs until the silence between movements. But on that Friday in January, Joshua Bell was just another mendicant, competing for the attention of busy people on their way to work.
Bell was first pitched this idea shortly before Christmas, over coffee at a sandwich shop on Capitol Hill. A New Yorker, he was in town to perform at the Library of Congress and to visit the library's vaults to examine an unusual treasure: an 18th-century violin that once belonged to the great Austrian-born virtuoso and composer Fritz Kreisler. The curators invited Bell to play it; good sound, still.
"Here's what I'm thinking," Bell confided, as he sipped his coffee. "I'm thinking that I could do a tour where I'd play Kreisler's music . . ."
He smiled.
". . . on Kreisler's violin."
It was a snazzy, sequined idea -- part inspiration and part gimmick -- and it was typical of Bell, who has unapologetically embraced showmanship even as his concert career has become more and more august. He's soloed with the finest orchestras here and abroad, but he's also appeared on "Sesame Street," done late-night talk TV and performed in feature films. That was Bell playing the soundtrack on the 1998 movie "The Red Violin." (He body-doubled, too, playing to a naked Greta Scacchi.) As composer John Corigliano accepted the Oscar for Best Original Dramatic Score, he credited Bell, who, he said, "plays like a god."
When Bell was asked if he'd be willing to don street clothes and perform at rush hour, he said:
"Uh, a stunt?"
Well, yes. A stunt. Would he think it . . . unseemly?
Bell drained his cup.
"Sounds like fun," he said.
Bell's a heartthrob. Tall and handsome, he's got a Donny Osmond-like dose of the cutes, and, onstage, cute elides into hott. When he performs, he is usually the only man under the lights who is not in white tie and tails -- he walks out to a standing O, looking like Zorro, in black pants and an untucked black dress shirt, shirttail dangling. That cute Beatles-style mop top is also a strategic asset: Because his technique is full of body -- athletic and passionate -- he's almost dancing with the instrument, and his hair flies.
He's single and straight, a fact not lost on some of his fans. In Boston, as he performed Max Bruch's dour Violin Concerto in G Minor, the very few young women in the audience nearly disappeared in the deep sea of silver heads. But seemingly every single one of them -- a distillate of the young and pretty -- coalesced at the stage door after the performance, seeking an autograph. It's like that always, with Bell.
Bell's been accepting over-the-top accolades since puberty: Interview magazine once said his playing "does nothing less than tell human beings why they bother to live." He's learned to field these things graciously, with a bashful duck of the head and a modified "pshaw."
For this incognito performance, Bell had only one condition for participating. The event had been described to him as a test of whether, in an incongruous context, ordinary people would recognize genius. His condition: "I'm not comfortable if you call this genius." "Genius" is an overused word, he said: It can be applied to some of the composers whose work he plays, but not to him. His skills are largely interpretive, he said, and to imply otherwise would be unseemly and inaccurate.
It was an interesting request, and under the circumstances, one that will be honored. The word will not again appear in this article.
It would be breaking no rules, however, to note that the term in question, particularly as applied in the field of music, refers to a congenital brilliance -- an elite, innate, preternatural ability that manifests itself early, and often in dramatic fashion.
One biographically intriguing fact about Bell is that he got his first music lessons when he was a 4-year-old in Bloomington, Ind. His parents, both psychologists, decided formal training might be a good idea after they saw that their son had strung rubber bands across his dresser drawers and was replicating classical tunes by ear, moving drawers in and out to vary the pitch.
TO GET TO THE METRO FROM HIS HOTEL, a distance of three blocks, Bell took a taxi. He's neither lame nor lazy: He did it for his violin.
Bell always performs on the same instrument, and he ruled out using another for this gig. Called the Gibson ex Huberman, it was handcrafted in 1713 by Antonio Stradivari during the Italian master's "golden period," toward the end of his career, when he had access to the finest spruce, maple and willow, and when his technique had been refined to perfection.
"Our knowledge of acoustics is still incomplete," Bell said, "but he, he just . . . knew."
Bell doesn't mention Stradivari by name. Just "he." When the violinist shows his Strad to people, he holds the instrument gingerly by its neck, resting it on a knee. "He made this to perfect thickness at all parts," Bell says, pivoting it. "If you shaved off a millimeter of wood at any point, it would totally imbalance the sound." No violins sound as wonderful as Strads from the 1710s, still.
The front of Bell's violin is in nearly perfect condition, with a deep, rich grain and luster. The back is a mess, its dark reddish finish bleeding away into a flatter, lighter shade and finally, in one section, to bare wood.
"This has never been refinished," Bell said. "That's his original varnish. People attribute aspects of the sound to the varnish. Each maker had his own secret formula." Stradivari is thought to have made his from an ingeniously balanced cocktail of honey, egg whites and gum arabic from sub-Saharan trees.
Like the instrument in "The Red Violin," this one has a past filled with mystery and malice. Twice, it was stolen from its illustrious prior owner, the Polish virtuoso Bronislaw Huberman. The first time, in 1919, it disappeared from Huberman's hotel room in Vienna but was quickly returned. The second time, nearly 20 years later, it was pinched from his dressing room in Carnegie Hall. He never got it back. It was not until 1985 that the thief -- a minor New York violinist -- made a deathbed confession to his wife, and produced the instrument.
Bell bought it a few years ago. He had to sell his own Strad and borrow much of the rest. The price tag was reported to be about $3.5 million.
All of which is a long explanation for why, in the early morning chill of a day in January, Josh Bell took a three-block cab ride to the Orange Line, and rode one stop to L'Enfant.
AS METRO STATIONS GO, L'ENFANT PLAZA IS MORE PLEBEIAN THAN MOST. Even before you arrive, it gets no respect. Metro conductors never seem to get it right: "Leh-fahn." "Layfont." "El'phant."
At the top of the escalators are a shoeshine stand and a busy kiosk that sells newspapers, lottery tickets and a wallfull of magazines with titles such as Mammazons and Girls of Barely Legal. The skin mags move, but it's that lottery ticket dispenser that stays the busiest, with customers queuing up for Daily 6 lotto and Powerball and the ultimate suckers' bait, those pamphlets that sell random number combinations purporting to be "hot." They sell briskly. There's also a quick-check machine to slide in your lotto ticket, post-drawing, to see if you've won. Beneath it is a forlorn pile of crumpled slips.
On Friday, January 12, the people waiting in the lottery line looking for a long shot would get a lucky break -- a free, close-up ticket to a concert by one of the world's most famous musicians -- but only if they were of a mind to take note.
Bell decided to begin with "Chaconne" from Johann Sebastian Bach's Partita No. 2 in D Minor. Bell calls it "not just one of the greatest pieces of music ever written, but one of the greatest achievements of any man in history. It's a spiritually powerful piece, emotionally powerful, structurally perfect. Plus, it was written for a solo violin, so I won't be cheating with some half-assed version."
Bell didn't say it, but Bach's "Chaconne" is also considered one of the most difficult violin pieces to master. Many try; few succeed. It's exhaustingly long -- 14 minutes -- and consists entirely of a single, succinct musical progression repeated in dozens of variations to create a dauntingly complex architecture of sound. Composed around 1720, on the eve of the European Enlightenment, it is said to be a celebration of the breadth of human possibility.
If Bell's encomium to "Chaconne" seems overly effusive, consider this from the 19th-century composer Johannes Brahms, in a letter to Clara Schumann: "On one stave, for a small instrument, the man writes a whole world of the deepest thoughts and most powerful feelings. If I imagined that I could have created, even conceived the piece, I am quite certain that the excess of excitement and earth-shattering experience would have driven me out of my mind."
So, that's the piece Bell started with.
He'd clearly meant it when he promised not to cheap out this performance: He played with acrobatic enthusiasm, his body leaning into the music and arching on tiptoes at the high notes. The sound was nearly symphonic, carrying to all parts of the homely arcade as the pedestrian traffic filed past.
Three minutes went by before something happened. Sixty-three people had already passed when, finally, there was a breakthrough of sorts. A middle-age man altered his gait for a split second, turning his head to notice that there seemed to be some guy playing music. Yes, the man kept walking, but it was something.
A half-minute later, Bell got his first donation. A woman threw in a buck and scooted off. It was not until six minutes into the performance that someone actually stood against a wall, and listened.
Things never got much better. In the three-quarters of an hour that Joshua Bell played, seven people stopped what they were doing to hang around and take in the performance, at least for a minute. Twenty-seven gave money, most of them on the run -- for a total of $32 and change. That leaves the 1,070 people who hurried by, oblivious, many only three feet away, few even turning to look.
No, Mr. Slatkin, there was never a crowd, not even for a second.
It was all videotaped by a hidden camera. You can play the recording once or 15 times, and it never gets any easier to watch. Try speeding it up, and it becomes one of those herky-jerky World War I-era silent newsreels. The people scurry by in comical little hops and starts, cups of coffee in their hands, cellphones at their ears, ID tags slapping at their bellies, a grim danse macabre to indifference, inertia and the dingy, gray rush of modernity.
Even at this accelerated pace, though, the fiddler's movements remain fluid and graceful; he seems so apart from his audience -- unseen, unheard, otherworldly -- that you find yourself thinking that he's not really there. A ghost.
Only then do you see it: He is the one who is real. They are the ghosts.
IF A GREAT MUSICIAN PLAYS GREAT MUSIC BUT NO ONE HEARS . . . WAS HE REALLY ANY GOOD?
It's an old epistemological debate, older, actually, than the koan about the tree in the forest. Plato weighed in on it, and philosophers for two millennia afterward: What is beauty? Is it a measurable fact (Gottfried Leibniz), or merely an opinion (David Hume), or is it a little of each, colored by the immediate state of mind of the observer (Immanuel Kant)?
We'll go with Kant, because he's obviously right, and because he brings us pretty directly to Joshua Bell, sitting there in a hotel restaurant, picking at his breakfast, wryly trying to figure out what the hell had just happened back there at the Metro.
"At the beginning," Bell says, "I was just concentrating on playing the music. I wasn't really watching what was happening around me . . ."
Playing the violin looks all-consuming, mentally and physically, but Bell says that for him the mechanics of it are partly second nature, cemented by practice and muscle memory: It's like a juggler, he says, who can keep those balls in play while interacting with a crowd. What he's mostly thinking about as he plays, Bell says, is capturing emotion as a narrative: "When you play a violin piece, you are a storyteller, and you're telling a story."
With "Chaconne," the opening is filled with a building sense of awe. That kept him busy for a while. Eventually, though, he began to steal a sidelong glance.
"It was a strange feeling, that people were actually, ah . . ."
The word doesn't come easily.
". . . ignoring me."
Bell is laughing. It's at himself.
"At a music hall, I'll get upset if someone coughs or if someone's cellphone goes off. But here, my expectations quickly diminished. I started to appreciate any acknowledgment, even a slight glance up. I was oddly grateful when someone threw in a dollar instead of change." This is from a man whose talents can command $1,000 a minute.
Before he began, Bell hadn't known what to expect. What he does know is that, for some reason, he was nervous.
"It wasn't exactly stage fright, but there were butterflies," he says. "I was stressing a little."
Bell has played, literally, before crowned heads of Europe. Why the anxiety at the Washington Metro?
"When you play for ticket-holders," Bell explains, "you are already validated. I have no sense that I need to be accepted. I'm already accepted. Here, there was this thought:What if they don't like me? What if they resent my presence . . ."He was, in short, art without a frame. Which, it turns out, may have a lot to do with what happened -- or, more precisely, what didn't happen -- on January 12.
MARK LEITHAUSER HAS HELD IN HIS HANDS MORE GREAT WORKS OF ART THAN ANY KING OR POPE OR MEDICI EVER DID. A senior curator at the National Gallery, he oversees the framing of the paintings. Leithauser thinks he has some idea of what happened at that Metro station.
"Let's say I took one of our more abstract masterpieces, say an Ellsworth Kelly, and removed it from its frame, marched it down the 52 steps that people walk up to get to the National Gallery, past the giant columns, and brought it into a restaurant. It's a $5 million painting. And it's one of those restaurants where there are pieces of original art for sale, by some industrious kids from the Corcoran School, and I hang that Kelly on the wall with a price tag of $150. No one is going to notice it. An art curator might look up and say: 'Hey, that looks a little like an Ellsworth Kelly. Please pass the salt.'"
Leithauser's point is that we shouldn't be too ready to label the Metro passersby unsophisticated boobs. Context matters.
Kant said the same thing. He took beauty seriously: In his Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, Kant argued that one's ability to appreciate beauty is related to one's ability to make moral judgments. But there was a caveat. Paul Guyer of the University of Pennsylvania, one of America's most prominent Kantian scholars, says the 18th-century German philosopher felt that to properly appreciate beauty, the viewing conditions must be optimal.
"Optimal," Guyer said, "doesn't mean heading to work, focusing on your report to the boss, maybe your shoes don't fit right."
So, if Kant had been at the Metro watching as Joshua Bell play to a thousand unimpressed passersby?
"He would have inferred about them," Guyer said, "absolutely nothing."
And that's that.
Except it isn't. To really understand what happened, you have to rewind that video and play it back from the beginning, from the moment Bell's bow first touched the strings.
White guy, khakis, leather jacket, briefcase. Early 30s. John David Mortensen is on the final leg of his daily bus-to-Metro commute from Reston. He's heading up the escalator. It's a long ride -- 1 minute and 15 seconds if you don't walk. So, like most everyone who passes Bell this day, Mortensen gets a good earful of music before he has his first look at the musician. Like most of them, he notes that it sounds pretty good. But like very few of them, when he gets to the top, he doesn't race past as though Bell were some nuisance to be avoided. Mortensen is that first person to stop, that guy at the six-minute mark.
It's not that he has nothing else to do. He's a project manager for an international program at the Department of Energy; on this day, Mortensen has to participate in a monthly budget exercise, not the most exciting part of his job: "You review the past month's expenditures," he says, "forecast spending for the next month, if you have X dollars, where will it go, that sort of thing."
On the video, you can see Mortensen get off the escalator and look around. He locates the violinist, stops, walks away but then is drawn back. He checks the time on his cellphone -- he's three minutes early for work -- then settles against a wall to listen.Mortensen doesn't know classical music at all; classic rock is as close as he comes. But there's something about what he's hearing that he really likes.
As it happens, he's arrived at the moment that Bell slides into the second section of "Chaconne." ("It's the point," Bell says, "where it moves from a darker, minor key into a major key. There's a religious, exalted feeling to it.") The violinist's bow begins to dance; the music becomes upbeat, playful, theatrical, big.
Mortensen doesn't know about major or minor keys: "Whatever it was," he says, "it made me feel at peace."
So, for the first time in his life, Mortensen lingers to listen to a street musician. He stays his allotted three minutes as 94 more people pass briskly by. When he leaves to help plan contingency budgets for the Department of Energy, there's another first. For the first time in his life, not quite knowing what had just happened but sensing it was special, John David Mortensen gives a street musician money.
THERE ARE SIX MOMENTS IN THE VIDEO THAT BELL FINDS PARTICULARLY PAINFUL TO RELIVE: "The awkward times," he calls them. It's what happens right after each piece ends: nothing. The music stops. The same people who hadn't noticed him playing don't notice that he has finished. No applause, no acknowledgment. So Bell just saws out a small, nervous chord -- the embarrassed musician's equivalent of, "Er, okay, moving right along . . ." -- and begins the next piece.
After "Chaconne," it is Franz Schubert's "Ave Maria," which surprised some music critics when it debuted in 1825: Schubert seldom showed religious feeling in his compositions, yet "Ave Maria" is a breathtaking work of adoration of the Virgin Mary. What was with the sudden piety? Schubert dryly answered: "I think this is due to the fact that I never forced devotion in myself and never compose hymns or prayers of that kind unless it overcomes me unawares; but then it is usually the right and true devotion." This musical prayer became among the most familiar and enduring religious pieces in history.
A couple of minutes into it, something revealing happens. A woman and her preschooler emerge from the escalator. The woman is walking briskly and, therefore, so is the child. She's got his hand.
"I had a time crunch," recalls Sheron Parker, an IT director for a federal agency. "I had an 8:30 training class, and first I had to rush Evvie off to his teacher, then rush back to work, then to the training facility in the basement."
Evvie is her son, Evan. Evan is 3.
You can see Evan clearly on the video. He's the cute black kid in the parka who keeps twisting around to look at Joshua Bell, as he is being propelled toward the door.
"There was a musician," Parker says, "and my son was intrigued. He wanted to pull over and listen, but I was rushed for time."
So Parker does what she has to do. She deftly moves her body between Evan's and Bell's, cutting off her son's line of sight. As they exit the arcade, Evan can still be seen craning to look. When Parker is told what she walked out on, she laughs.
"Evan is very smart!"
The poet Billy Collins once laughingly observed that all babies are born with a knowledge of poetry, because the lub-dub of the mother's heart is in iambic meter. Then, Collins said, life slowly starts to choke the poetry out of us. It may be true with music, too.
There was no ethnic or demographic pattern to distinguish the people who stayed to watch Bell, or the ones who gave money, from that vast majority who hurried on past, unheeding. Whites, blacks and Asians, young and old, men and women, were represented in all three groups. But the behavior of one demographic remained absolutely consistent. Every single time a child walked past, he or she tried to stop and watch. And every single time, a parent scooted the kid away.
IF THERE WAS ONE PERSON ON THAT DAY WHO WAS TOO BUSY TO PAY ATTENTION TO THE VIOLINIST, it was George Tindley. Tindley wasn't hurrying to get to work. He was at work.
The glass doors through which most people exit the L'Enfant station lead into an indoor shopping mall, from which there are exits to the street and elevators to office buildings. The first store in the mall is an Au Bon Pain, the croissant and coffee shop where Tindley, in his 40s, works in a white uniform busing the tables, restocking the salt and pepper packets, taking out the garbage. Tindley labors under the watchful eye of his bosses, and he's supposed to be hopping, and he was.
But every minute or so, as though drawn by something not entirely within his control, Tindley would walk to the very edge of the Au Bon Pain property, keeping his toes inside the line, still on the job. Then he'd lean forward, as far out into the hallway as he could, watching the fiddler on the other side of the glass doors. The foot traffic was steady, so the doors were usually open. The sound came through pretty well.
"You could tell in one second that this guy was good, that he was clearly a professional," Tindley says. He plays the guitar, loves the sound of strings, and has no respect for a certain kind of musician.
"Most people, they play music; they don't feel it," Tindley says. "Well, that man wasfeeling it. That man was moving. Moving into the sound."
A hundred feet away, across the arcade, was the lottery line, sometimes five or six people long. They had a much better view of Bell than Tindley did, if they had just turned around. But no one did. Not in the entire 43 minutes. They just shuffled forward toward that machine spitting out numbers. Eyes on the prize.
J.T. Tillman was in that line. A computer specialist for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, he remembers every single number he played that day -- 10 of them, $2 apiece, for a total of $20. He doesn't recall what the violinist was playing, though. He says it sounded like generic classical music, the kind the ship's band was playing in "Titanic," before the iceberg.
"I didn't think nothing of it," Tillman says, "just a guy trying to make a couple of bucks." Tillman would have given him one or two, he said, but he spent all his cash on lotto.
When he is told that he stiffed one of the best musicians in the world, he laughs.
"Is he ever going to play around here again?"
"Yeah, but you're going to have to pay a lot to hear him."
"Damn."
Tillman didn't win the lottery, either.
BELL ENDS "AVE MARIA" TO ANOTHER THUNDEROUS SILENCE, plays Manuel Ponce's sentimental "Estrellita," then a piece by Jules Massenet, and then begins a Bach gavotte, a joyful, frolicsome, lyrical dance. It's got an Old World delicacy to it; you can imagine it entertaining bewigged dancers at a Versailles ball, or -- in a lute, fiddle and fife version -- the boot-kicking peasants of a Pieter Bruegel painting.
Watching the video weeks later, Bell finds himself mystified by one thing only. He understands why he's not drawing a crowd, in the rush of a morning workday. But: "I'm surprised at the number of people who don't pay attention at all, as if I'm invisible. Because, you know what? I'm makin' a lot of noise!"
He is. You don't need to know music at all to appreciate the simple fact that there's a guy there, playing a violin that's throwing out a whole bucket of sound; at times, Bell's bowing is so intricate that you seem to be hearing two instruments playing in harmony. So those head-forward, quick-stepping passersby are a remarkable phenomenon.
Bell wonders whether their inattention may be deliberate: If you don't take visible note of the musician, you don't have to feel guilty about not forking over money; you're not complicit in a rip-off.
It may be true, but no one gave that explanation. People just said they were busy, had other things on their mind. Some who were on cellphones spoke louder as they passed Bell, to compete with that infernal racket.
And then there was Calvin Myint. Myint works for the General Services Administration. He got to the top of the escalator, turned right and headed out a door to the street. A few hours later, he had no memory that there had been a musician anywhere in sight.
"Where was he, in relation to me?"
"About four feet away."
"Oh."
There's nothing wrong with Myint's hearing. He had buds in his ear. He was listening to his iPod.
For many of us, the explosion in technology has perversely limited, not expanded, our exposure to new experiences. Increasingly, we get our news from sources that think as we already do. And with iPods, we hear what we already know; we program our own playlists.
The song that Calvin Myint was listening to was "Just Like Heaven," by the British rock band The Cure. It's a terrific song, actually. The meaning is a little opaque, and the Web is filled with earnest efforts to deconstruct it. Many are far-fetched, but some are right on point: It's about a tragic emotional disconnect. A man has found the woman of his dreams but can't express the depth of his feeling for her until she's gone. It's about failing to see the beauty of what's plainly in front of your eyes.
"YES, I SAW THE VIOLINIST," Jackie Hessian says, "but nothing about him struck me as much of anything."
You couldn't tell that by watching her. Hessian was one of those people who gave Bell a long, hard look before walking on. It turns out that she wasn't noticing the music at all.
"I really didn't hear that much," she said. "I was just trying to figure out what he was doing there, how does this work for him, can he make much money, would it be better to start with some money in the case, or for it to be empty, so people feel sorry for you? I was analyzing it financially."
What do you do, Jackie?
"I'm a lawyer in labor relations with the United States Postal Service. I just negotiated a national contract."
THE BEST SEATS IN THE HOUSE WERE UPHOLSTERED. In the balcony, more or less. On that day, for $5, you'd get a lot more than just a nice shine on your shoes.
Only one person occupied one of those seats when Bell played. Terence Holmes is a consultant for the Department of Transportation, and he liked the music just fine, but it was really about a shoeshine: "My father told me never to wear a suit with your shoes not cleaned and shined."
Holmes wears suits often, so he is up in that perch a lot, and he's got a good relationship with the shoeshine lady. Holmes is a good tipper and a good talker, which is a skill that came in handy that day. The shoeshine lady was upset about something, and the music got her more upset. She complained, Holmes said, that the music was too loud, and he tried to calm her down.
Edna Souza is from Brazil. She's been shining shoes at L'Enfant Plaza for six years, and she's had her fill of street musicians there; when they play, she can't hear her customers, and that's bad for business. So she fights.
Souza points to the dividing line between the Metro property, at the top of the escalator, and the arcade, which is under control of the management company that runs the mall. Sometimes, Souza says, a musician will stand on the Metro side, sometimes on the mall side. Either way, she's got him. On her speed dial, she has phone numbers for both the mall cops and the Metro cops. The musicians seldom last long.
What about Joshua Bell?
He was too loud, too, Souza says. Then she looks down at her rag, sniffs. She hates to say anything positive about these damned musicians, but: "He was pretty good, that guy. It was the first time I didn't call the police."
Souza was surprised to learn he was a famous musician, but not that people rushed blindly by him. That, she said, was predictable. "If something like this happened in Brazil, everyone would stand around to see. Not here."
Souza nods sourly toward a spot near the top of the escalator: "Couple of years ago, a homeless guy died right there. He just lay down there and died. The police came, an ambulance came, and no one even stopped to see or slowed down to look.
"People walk up the escalator, they look straight ahead. Mind your own business, eyes forward. Everyone is stressed. Do you know what I mean?"
What is this life if, full of care,We have no time to stand and stare.-- from "Leisure," by W.H. Davies
Let's say Kant is right. Let's accept that we can't look at what happened on January 12 and make any judgment whatever about people's sophistication or their ability to appreciate beauty. But what about their ability to appreciate life?
We're busy. Americans have been busy, as a people, since at least 1831, when a young French sociologist named Alexis de Tocqueville visited the States and found himself impressed, bemused and slightly dismayed at the degree to which people were driven, to the exclusion of everything else, by hard work and the accumulation of wealth.
Not much has changed. Pop in a DVD of "Koyaanisqatsi," the wordless, darkly brilliant, avant-garde 1982 film about the frenetic speed of modern life. Backed by the minimalist music of Philip Glass, director Godfrey Reggio takes film clips of Americans going about their daily business, but speeds them up until they resemble assembly-line machines, robots marching lockstep to nowhere. Now look at the video from L'Enfant Plaza, in fast-forward. The Philip Glass soundtrack fits it perfectly.
"Koyaanisqatsi" is a Hopi word. It means "life out of balance."
In his 2003 book, Timeless Beauty: In the Arts and Everyday Life, British author John Lane writes about the loss of the appreciation for beauty in the modern world. The experiment at L'Enfant Plaza may be symptomatic of that, he said -- not because people didn't have the capacity to understand beauty, but because it was irrelevant to them.
"This is about having the wrong priorities," Lane said.
If we can't take the time out of our lives to stay a moment and listen to one of the best musicians on Earth play some of the best music ever written; if the surge of modern life so overpowers us that we are deaf and blind to something like that -- then what else are we missing?
That's what the Welsh poet W.H. Davies meant in 1911 when he published those two lines that begin this section. They made him famous. The thought was simple, even primitive, but somehow no one had put it quite that way before.
Of course, Davies had an advantage -- an advantage of perception. He wasn't a tradesman or a laborer or a bureaucrat or a consultant or a policy analyst or a labor lawyer or a program manager. He was a hobo.
THE CULTURAL HERO OF THE DAY ARRIVED AT L'ENFANT PLAZA PRETTY LATE, in the unprepossessing figure of one John Picarello, a smallish man with a baldish head.
Picarello hit the top of the escalator just after Bell began his final piece, a reprise of "Chaconne." In the video, you see Picarello stop dead in his tracks, locate the source of the music, and then retreat to the other end of the arcade. He takes up a position past the shoeshine stand, across from that lottery line, and he will not budge for the next nine minutes.
Like all the passersby interviewed for this article, Picarello was stopped by a reporter after he left the building, and was asked for his phone number. Like everyone, he was told only that this was to be an article about commuting. When he was called later in the day, like everyone else, he was first asked if anything unusual had happened to him on his trip into work. Of the more than 40 people contacted, Picarello was the only one who immediately mentioned the violinist.
"There was a musician playing at the top of the escalator at L'Enfant Plaza."
Haven't you seen musicians there before?
"Not like this one."
What do you mean?
"This was a superb violinist. I've never heard anyone of that caliber. He was technically proficient, with very good phrasing. He had a good fiddle, too, with a big, lush sound. I walked a distance away, to hear him. I didn't want to be intrusive on his space."
Really?
"Really. It was that kind of experience. It was a treat, just a brilliant, incredible way to start the day."
Picarello knows classical music. He is a fan of Joshua Bell but didn't recognize him; he hadn't seen a recent photo, and besides, for most of the time Picarello was pretty far away. But he knew this was not a run-of-the-mill guy out there, performing. On the video, you can see Picarello look around him now and then, almost bewildered.
"Yeah, other people just were not getting it. It just wasn't registering. That was baffling to me."
When Picarello was growing up in New York, he studied violin seriously, intending to be a concert musician. But he gave it up at 18, when he decided he'd never be good enough to make it pay. Life does that to you sometimes. Sometimes, you have to do the prudent thing. So he went into another line of work. He's a supervisor at the U.S. Postal Service. Doesn't play the violin much, anymore.
When he left, Picarello says, "I humbly threw in $5." It was humble: You can actually see that on the video. Picarello walks up, barely looking at Bell, and tosses in the money. Then, as if embarrassed, he quickly walks away from the man he once wanted to be.
Does he have regrets about how things worked out?
The postal supervisor considers this.
"No. If you love something but choose not to do it professionally, it's not a waste. Because, you know, you still have it. You have it forever."
BELL THINKS HE DID HIS BEST WORK OF THE DAY IN THOSE FINAL FEW MINUTES, in the second "Chaconne." And that also was the first time more than one person at a time was listening. As Picarello stood in the back, Janice Olu arrived and took up a position a few feet away from Bell. Olu, a public trust officer with HUD, also played the violin as a kid. She didn't know the name of the piece she was hearing, but she knew the man playing it has a gift.
Olu was on a coffee break and stayed as long as she dared. As she turned to go, she whispered to the stranger next to her, "I really don't want to leave." The stranger standing next to her happened to be working for The Washington Post.
In preparing for this event, editors at The Post Magazine discussed how to deal with likely outcomes. The most widely held assumption was that there could well be a problem with crowd control: In a demographic as sophisticated as Washington, the thinking went, several people would surely recognize Bell. Nervous "what-if" scenarios abounded. As people gathered, what if others stopped just to see what the attraction was? Word would spread through the crowd. Cameras would flash. More people flock to the scene; rush-hour pedestrian traffic backs up; tempers flare; the National Guard is called; tear gas, rubber bullets, etc.
As it happens, exactly one person recognized Bell, and she didn't arrive until near the very end. For Stacy Furukawa, a demographer at the Commerce Department, there was no doubt. She doesn't know much about classical music, but she had been in the audience three weeks earlier, at Bell's free concert at the Library of Congress. And here he was, the international virtuoso, sawing away, begging for money. She had no idea what the heck was going on, but whatever it was, she wasn't about to miss it.
Furukawa positioned herself 10 feet away from Bell, front row, center. She had a huge grin on her face. The grin, and Furukawa, remained planted in that spot until the end.
"It was the most astonishing thing I've ever seen in Washington," Furukawa says. "Joshua Bell was standing there playing at rush hour, and people were not stopping, and not even looking, and some were flipping quarters at him! Quarters! I wouldn't do that to anybody. I was thinking, Omigosh, what kind of a city do I live in that this could happen?"When it was over, Furukawa introduced herself to Bell, and tossed in a twenty. Not counting that -- it was tainted by recognition -- the final haul for his 43 minutes of playing was $32.17. Yes, some people gave pennies.
"Actually," Bell said with a laugh, "that's not so bad, considering. That's 40 bucks an hour. I could make an okay living doing this, and I wouldn't have to pay an agent."
These days, at L'Enfant Plaza, lotto ticket sales remain brisk. Musicians still show up from time to time, and they still tick off Edna Souza. Joshua Bell's latest album, "The Voice of the Violin," has received the usual critical acclaim. ("Delicate urgency." "Masterful intimacy." "Unfailingly exquisite." "A musical summit." ". . . will make your heart thump and weep at the same time.")
Bell headed off on a concert tour of European capitals. But he is back in the States this week. He has to be. On Tuesday, he will be accepting the Avery Fisher prize, recognizing the Flop of L'Enfant Plaza as the best classical musician in America.

Friday, May 9, 2014

Yeniseian and Na-Dene article from Plos One (March 12, 2014)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0091722

Abstract


Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America.

Figures


Introduction


The aboriginal populations of America and Asia are linked through prehistoric migrations via the Bering Land Bridge. Our understanding of these migrations has been derived primarily from archaeological and biological data rather than from linguistics as most migrations preceded the generally accepted 8–10,000-year limit of the traditional comparative method of historical linguistics [1][2]. DNA evidence supports at least three migrations with the earliest 15–40,000 BP referred to generically as the Paleoindian and associated with the greatest distribution of language and cultural groups across North, Meso, and South America; the second 12–14,000 BP is the Na-Dene distributed in North America from Alaska to the Pacific Northwest and from Canada to the U.S. Southwest; and the third ca. 9000 BP is Eskimo-Aleut with circumpolar distribution [3][4]. Linguists have classified Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene as separate language stocks, and the rest of the languages of the Americas as belonging to numerous stocks, but have otherwise been mostly silent on questions that connect Asian and the American populations because, with the exception of Eskimo-Aleut, the dates of these earlier connections lie beyond the traditionally accepted limit for comparative reconstruction. Linguistic claims of more distant relationships have relied instead on the more controversial method of mass (or multilateral) comparison of lexical items subjectively judged as similar [5]. Using such methods a Dene-Yeniseian (DY) connection linking Asia to North America has been suggested for nearly 100 years [6], but only recently has a stronger case been made using methods of linguistic reconstruction [7], which has been peer reviewed with cautious optimism urging alternative methods for its evaluation [8][9]. The hypothesis of a DY language family prompted claims of proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia [5], the relationship fitting into a popular narrative for the peopling of the Americas.

Our goal here is not to address the validity of the Dene-Yeniseian hypothesis nor the type of linguistic data used to support it. Rather, we address the questions of what it means for migration theories if the DY connection is true and how we can rigorously test hypotheses relating linguistic dispersals with population migrations. We show that Bayesian analysis and neighbor-joining network modeling applied to linguistic datasets provide new insight into the implications of the DY hypothesis. We use typological data to infer linguistic phylogenies that test two dispersal hypotheses. First, Ruhlen’s conjecture that “the origin of the Yeniseian-Na-Dene population can plausibly be traced to West Asia” [5], and second, that a relationship between Yeniseian and Na-Dene represents radiation out of Beringia. We use Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors [10] to test the fit between the linguistic phylogenies modeling the two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support an argument that, if the Dene-Yeniseian connection is true, it more likely reflects radiation out of Beringia with both eastward migrations into North America and westward migration into Asia rather than a unidirectional migration from Asia to North America.

Materials and Methods


In the last decade, computational phylogenetic tools developed primarily in evolutionary biology have been incorporated into the field of historical linguistics bringing new methods to bear on questions of prehistoric migrations [11][12][13], language contact [14], language classification [15][16], and language universals [17][18], thereby potentially pushing the upper-limit of historical linguistic inference into the Terminal Pleistocene [19][20][21]. Greenhill and Gray [12] advocate the use of a phylogenetic framework to test how linguistic data match migration hypotheses, observing that without such rigorous testing migration scenarios “are little more than plausible narratives.” They argue for the use of Bayesian likelihood modeling over parsimony and use Austronesian lexical cognate sets to test between competing dispersal hypotheses for the Austronesian expansion throughout the Pacific. The use of lexical cognate data closely aligns with data used to infer family relationships in the traditional comparative method of historical linguistics, and the relatively shallow time depth of Austronesian expansion makes lexical cognate data appropriate for Greenhill and Gray’s study. However lexical cognates can be problematic due to a lack of lexical retention at deeper time depths and for families that have undergone extensive lexical borrowing. Wichmann and Saunders [22] review data and methods and propose that “[i]f one goal of linguistic phylogenetics is to infer more ancient relationships than those distinguishable by words alone, typological data may be the only choice.” Dunn and his collaborators [19][20] pioneered the use of typological databases in modeling evolutionary history using parsimony methods to argue that a trace of phylogenetic signal is detectable from typological data of Papuan languages reflecting a time period in which Australia and New Guinea were joined by a land bridge in the late-Pleistocene continent Sahul. The use of typological data was motivated for Papuan because of the lack of retention of lexical cognates. In contrast, our motivation for using typological data in examining the prehistory of Na-Dene is an abundance of close cognates and inconsistency among isoglosses that have been argued to reflect a long history of lexical borrowing through language contact among related languages [23]. Our focus on typology specifically also takes up the challenge of using alternative methods to consider the position of Yeniseian within the proposed Dene-Yeniseian family which has been otherwise inferred primarily on the basis of lexicon and templatic morphology [7]. The abundance of cognates within Na-Dene presents a challenge when comparing the linguistics with the archaeology. Estimates of time-depth based on lexical comparison are less than 8500 years[24], but the archaeology of Alaska shows temporal horizons well beyond 10,000 years with striking technological continuities with the historically known Na-Dene populations [25].

We applied both Bayesian likelihood modeling and a neighbor joining distance method in evaluating typological features of DY, using a binary coding schema that indicates the presence or absence of phonological and morphological features. Unknown features for a taxon were coded with a question mark. Our data matrix consists of 116 characters for 40 taxa: 2 Yeniseian languages (Ket-Kott), 37 Na-Dene (Tlingit-Eyak-Athabascan) languages, and the isolate Haida included for its potential as an outgroup. The characters we coded for were based on categories represented in Joel Sherzer’s An areal-typological study of American Indian languages north of Mexico [26], with some expansion to include more contrasts between Yeniseian and Na-Dene. Na-Dene character values were first determined from the Sherzer monograph, then checked against other published and unpublished sources in the Alaska Native Language Archive and revised where more current data was available. Yeniseian language character values were determined from a published grammar for the extinct Kott [27], and published grammars for Ket [27][28] with the Ket coding checked by a Yeniseian specialist. Uncertainty was coded with a question mark. Of the 116 characters, 26 were excluded as uninformative—either all lacking a feature or, to a lesser degree, all possessing a feature—leaving 90 informative characters. Supporting Information for this paper includes the list of features coded as characters (File S1) and the nexus file containing the data matrix (File S2). The neighbor joining analyses used the NeighborNet algorithm of SplitsTree4 [29], an agglomerative clustering algorithm that constructs a splits graph by iteratively combining taxa clusters given the character agreement and disagreement. The Bayesian analysis used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented in MrBayes [30]. We compared the models using multiple methods of harmonic mean estimation and marginal likelihood scores calculated by the stepping-stone method available through the MrBayes software from which Bayes factor values could be compared. We summarized the MCMC results of the most likely model through both a consensus tree and a consensus network.

Results


Fig. 1 is the NeighborNet splits graph which shows several clear clusters even though rectilinear webbing suggests regions of conflicting signals for specific taxa within clusters. We can see a primary division between groups which we label Coast languages on the right and Interior languages on the left. Within Coast there are clear groupings for North and South Pacific Coast Athabascan (PCA), Tlingit and Eyak, with Tlingit’s long branch length relative to Eyak’s shorter branch length supporting Eyak’s closer affiliation with Athabascan languages. The Yeniseian languages Ket and Kott group tightly with each other within the region of the network characterizing the Coast distribution and show a long branch length indicating a high degree of difference from the others. In Interior we see several clusters: Plains-Apachean, including Sarsi (Tsuut’ina) in Canada; two groupings labeled Alaska-Canada-1 and Alaska-Canada-2 plus the smaller West Alaska and South Alaska groups. The clusters generally agree with established divisions between Na-Dene subfamilies [31] and the rectilinear webbing is suggestive of the long history of language contact within Na-Dene, particularly within Northern Athabascan (Canada and Alaska) [31][23].
Figure 1. NeighborNet Splits Graph for Dene-Yeniseian Typological Features.

The splits graph shows several clear clusters with rectilinear webbing within clusters showing regions of conflicting signals for specific taxa. Primary divisions in the splits graph are indicated with dashed lines separating primarily coastally distributed languages on the right with interior languages on the left. Colored shading highlights clusters. Within the coastal region of the network there are groupings for Pacific Coast Athabascan (PCA), Tlingit and Eyak, with Tlingit’s branch length long relative to Eyak. The Yeniseian languages Ket and Kott group tightly with each other on the right side of the network and show a long branch length indicating a high degree of differences from the others. In Interior we see several clusters: Plains-Apachean, including Sarsi (Tsuut’ina) in Canada; two groupings labeled Alaska-Canada-1 and Alaska-Canada-2 plus the smaller West Alaska and South Alaska groups. The clusters generally agree with established divisions between Na-Dene subfamilies and the rectilinear webbing is suggestive of the long history of language contact within Na-Dene. The average delta score is 0.367 and the average Q-residual score is 0.0492.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.g001

We used the SplitsTree program to calculate the average delta score and Q-residual for the network as indicators to the extent of tree-likeness exhibited by the data. In general the closer to zero the scores the more a tree fits the data. The DY average delta score is 0.367 and the Q-residual is 0.0492. This is comparable to what Gray, Bryant and Greenhill [32] reported for Austronesian and Indo-European using typological data. They reported an average delta score for Austronesian typological data of 0.44 and average Q-residual of 0.05. Their figures for Indo-European typological data were 0.40 average delta score and 0.04 average Q-residual. Using the delta score the DY typological data appear slightly more tree-like than typological data for these other families, while Q-residual scores appear less tree-like than Indo-European but comparable to Austronesian. Taxon specific measures of tree-likeness give us a sense of how each language is contributing toward the rectilinear patterning in the network. The taxon specific delta and Q-residual scores are provided in Table 1 sorted on both delta and Q-residual scores, which, while showing some variation, are generally parallel. These scores show how the languages of the Plains-Apachean group, which form one of the clearest clusters in the splits graph, are in the most tree-like relation showing some of the lowest delta scores and Q-residuals by taxon. However, within this tree Navajo stands out as in a less clear tree-like relation by both measures, and Tsuut’ina (Sarsi) in Canada stands out by delta score but not Q-residual. The Yeniseian language Ket scores low or in the middle depending on the measure, while its sister Kott scores high by both measures. We in turn excluded each of these taxa to consider the position of each Yeniseian language separately from the other. When each Yeniseian language was excluded in turn, it slightly increased the scores for the remaining Yeniseian language and slightly affected its position in the network. When Kott was excluded, Ket sat between southern and northern PCA; while when Ket was excluded, Kott then sat between Eyak (eya) and Tsetsaut (txe). To achieve a more quantified analysis of these data, their clustering, and the uncertainty in the network, we used the same data matrix to apply a Bayesian phylogenetic method.
Table 1. Taxon-specific Delta Scores and Q-residuals for Yeniseian and Na-Dene languages sorted on delta score on the left and q-residual on the right.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.t001

Implementing our analysis in MrBayes we used a reversible substitution model with gamma distributed rate variability. We did several Markov chain runs modeling different priors and used multiple likelihood measures to evaluate the models representing the different hypotheses. The likelihood measures used were based on the stepping-stone method to infer marginal likelihoods to calculate the Bayes Factor. We also compared the harmonic mean provided in the summary of the parameters by MrBayes though this is known to be less reliable [33]. In our first set of runs we used a non-clock model, producing an unrooted tree. We included the unrelated linguistic isolate Haida in the dataset, which consistently was inferred to be outside of DY in the trees. We subsequently set a prior constraint to take Haida as the outgroup to root the tree and run clock models. To select between strict or relaxed clock models, we did MCMC runs specifying either a strict clock (uniform) model and a relaxed clock (TK02 continuous autocorrelated) model [34] and then evaluated the two models comparing their harmonic means and marginal likelihoods. The Bayes factor based on comparison of marginal likelihoods failed to distinguish the models at about 1 log unit, but the strict clock model showed a harmonic mean 5 log units above the relaxed clock models, well beyond the threshold of 3 log units suggested by Kass and Raftery [10], providing substantial evidence in favor of the strict clock model. We thus chose to use a strict clock model consistently for subsequent runs in which we varied taxonomic constraints that would test between dispersal hypotheses.

We ran the MCMC algorithm for 2,000,000 generations sampling every 500 generations to generate 4,001 trees and used a burn-in of 25% to sample 3,001 trees which was adequate for convergence and long enough for representative independent samples of the tree space, as verified by the Tracer algorithm of the BEAST software package [35]. We expect the two different migration hypotheses to exhibit different tree topologies. The out of central/western Asia hypothesis assumes that the Yeniseian languages (and potentially their extinct relatives) branched off of the Dene-Yeniseian family with Na-Dene subsequently diversifying. The tree topology for this hypothesis would place the Yeniseian languages outside of Na-Dene: [Yeniseian[Na-Dene]. The radiation out of Beringia hypothesis does not assume that Yeniseian necessarily branched first. To compare these two hypotheses we did separate MCMC runs where in one we imposed a prior taxonomic constraint that grouped the Na-Dene languages as an ingroup excluding Yeniseian. This constraint had the effect of creating a Na-Dene clade in 100% of the trees joining Yeniseian to the tree outside Na-Dene. We then calculated marginal likelihoods and the harmonic means to select the better model based on Bayes factors, effectively judging whether this topology was a better fit for the data than a MCMC run that did not include this constraint. The stepping-stone method was applied three times for each model with the marginal likelihoods of the three runs averaged.

The result showed that the topology that modeled the out-of-central Asia hypotheses did not explain the data better. In fact the model without this constraint showed an average marginal likelihood over 8.5 log units higher than the model with the constraint, providing strong support for the radiation out-of-Beringia hypothesis. Comparison of the harmonic means between the runs was less conclusive at less than 2 log units but in the same direction. The Bayes factors indicate that a model placing Yeniseian outside a Na-Dene clade fits the data significantly worse than the model without this constraint. The two consensus trees resulting from these models are provided in Fig. 2. In tree (a) Na-Dene is constrained as an ingroup, while tree (b) does not use the constraint. These are majority rules consensus trees that include only clades with support in greater than 50% of the trees. The tree in (b) is much better supported than the tree in (a) and is also in general agreement with the groupings highlighted in Fig. 1. In this tree Yeniseian, Tlingit, Eyak and South PCA are at the same phylogenetic level without being in a hierarchical relationship with each other. The terminal output of these Bayes runs is included inFile S3.
Figure 2. Consensus Tree Summaries of MCMC Runs.

Splits in these trees occurred in greater than 50% of 3001 trees sampled. Numbers at nodes and line shading indicate clade credibility in percentages. Bracketing and labels highlight groupings. The unrelated isolate Haida is included as an outgroup to root the tree. Tree (a) on the left was produced under a taxonomic constraint in which Yeniseian Split off before the diversification of Na-Dene. It was a substantially weaker hypothesis than tree (b) on the right in which there is no hierarchical relationship between Yeniseian, Tlingit and South PCA. In comparison with tree (a), tree (b) had substantial support with a Bayes factor 8.5 log units greater.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.g002

To overcome any lingering doubts about the effect of including Haida on the results, we also conducted MCMC runs removing Haida from the analysis to just leave the Yeniseian and Na-Dene languages at issue in the hypotheses we are testing. We continued to use a strict clock and did two runs testing the presence or absence of the same taxonomic constraint that joined Yeniseian outside of Na-Dene. Again the constrained tree was not better than the tree without this constraint. The harmonic means were less than 1 log unit apart not supporting either model. However, the difference between marginal likelihoods generated through the more reliable stepping-stone method was 9.7 log units higher for the topology without the taxonomic constraint. The Bayes factor clearly does not support the hypothesis that Yeniseian split off before the diversification of Na-Dene, which speaks against Ruhlen’s conjecture [5] that Yeniseian represented an early separation away from what came to diversify as Na-Dene. We also conducted several MCMC runs excluding additional taxa to explore the data further. We excluded the Yeniseian languages in turn with similar results to the NeighborNet exclusions discussed above. When Kott was excluded, Ket sat in a clade with Southern PCA; while when Ket was excluded, Kott sat at the highest branching level where Yeniseian is in Fig. 2b. We also conducted a run with Eyak excluded, which did not change the position of Tlingit. The terminal output from these runs is included in File S4.

Consensus Network


A consensus tree is one way to summarize a Bayes run but can be problematic in that it leaves out information from trees with less than 50% support, effectively hiding them from the consensus visualization [20]. For this reason we constructed a consensus network which allows for better visualization of the extent of support for alternative dispersal scenarios which place Yeniseian elsewhere in the phylogeny. Consensus networks are better representations of samples of trees because they are able to visualize conflicting evolutionary hypotheses by representing each split by parallel edges proportional in length to the probability assigned to the split [36]. Like the NeighborNet, the consensus network in Fig. 3 shows a major split between Coast and Interior languages. The Yeniseian languages lie within the Coast region of the network with no webbing showing evolutionary scenarios that link to the Interior languages or placing Yeniseian outside of Tlingit in the phylogenies. The clusters have been shaded in the same colors used in the NeighborNet and are plotted on the map in Fig. 4.
Figure 3. Consensus Network Summary of MCMC Run.

Network summarizes all splits with at least 10% support in 3001 trees sampled. Longer branch lengths indicate higher probabilities for splits. Rectilinear webbing indicates lower frequency splits. Primary divisions in the network are indicated with dashed lines separating Coast languages in the upper portion and Interior languages in the lower portion. Colored shading highlights cluster groupings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.g003
Figure 4. Dene-Yeniseian Out-of-Beringia.

This polar projection map of Asia and North America shows the approximate terminal Pleistocene shoreline. The center of geographic distribution of Yeniseian and Na-Dene language is in Beringia. From this center burgundy arrows extend toward the North American coast and into Siberia. A blue arrow indicates Interior dispersals of Na-Dene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.g004

Discussion


Regardless of the ultimate fate of the DY hypothesis, our work demonstrates the utility of using computational phylogenetic tools to explore the implications of proposals for deep linguistic relationships. While the focus of attention on the DY hypothesis has centered on the potential existence of a linguistic connection between Asia and America, the work described here focuses instead on the implications of such a connection for human migration. Those implications can in turn be compared with evidence from the complementary fields of archaeology and biology.

Should the DY hypothesis hold true, our application of computational phylogenetic methods supports an Out-of-Beringia population dispersal (Fig. 4) rather than the Out-of-Central/Western-Asia dispersal proposed by Ruhlen [5]. Bayesian comparison of models using Bayes factors based on marginal likelihood calculations provides no support for the Out-of-Central/Western-Asia hypotheses modeled by a taxonomic constraint that places Yeniseian as diverging early from a Na-Dene clade. Rather, the phylogeny with the strongest Bayes factor supports an early radiation from the center of the geographical distribution of the language family [37] in Beringia with migrations dispersing populations both along the North American Coast and back into Siberia, and subsequently population chains into the North American interior (Fig. 4). While we propose the first linguistically grounded argument for radiation out of Beringia, Tamm et al. [38] have proposed a strikingly parallel set of claims using mtDNA markers to argue for a “Beringian Standstill” before both a rapid early coastal migration into North America and back-migrations from Beringia into Asia. Here we have from linguistic data independent of archaeology or biology contributed to a theory of population dispersal that, while not contradicting the popular narrative of pedestrian hunters entering the New World through Beringia, complicates it with the insight that this was not a one-way trip.

There are several clear directions for future work. First, it would be desirable to expand on the typological data set by adding more characters. The findings we have discussed here are based on less than 100 informative characters, and we expect that additional data would make model comparison more robust. Such an expansion is challenging, because many of the Na-Dene and Yeniseian languages are extinct or endangered, which makes it difficult or impossible to expand the dataset evenly. Moreover, the radically templatic character of Na-Dene morphology complicates typological categorization. Another potential for further research is to bring lexical data in where possible. Using a small number of lexical characters Wichmann et al. [39] report more tree-like delta scores for Na-Dene and Yeniseian separately than we find for the combined DY network based on typological characters. This suggests that lexical characters may provide additional insights into the structure of the DY network. We are currently building a lexical dataset as well and plan to create a partitioned data matrix that could model both lexical and typological data together. Currently though we do not have lexical data for as many languages as we have typological data. Finally, there are implications for future work beyond the question of the DY connection. Our modeling has also generated several hypotheses regarding the dispersal of Na-Dene speakers across Coastal and Interior North America developing inquiry in historical linguistics with new methodologies that contribute a uniquely linguistic perspective on questions of prehistory.

Supporting Information

File_S1.pdf
Sicoli-Holton-DYCharacters-Taxa Information.


Sicoli-Holton-DYCharacters-Taxa Information.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.s001

(PDF)


Sicoli-Holton-DY-Typological.nex.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.s002

(NEX)


MCMC Runs for Fig. 2 (with Haida Outgroup).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.s003

(PDF)


MCMC Runs (without Haida Outgroup in matrix).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091722.s004

(PDF)

Acknowledgments


We thank Michael Krauss for comments on early presentations of this work, Edward Vajda for contributing data on Ket and for comments on an early presentation of this work, Ben Potter for the background of the map in Fig. 4 and for comments on an early presentation of this work, Michael Dunn for helpful comments on a draft of this paper, Brendon Fuhs and Margaret Randsell-Green for research assistance, and the PLoS ONE reviewers and editorial staff.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MAS. Analyzed the data: MAS. Wrote the paper: MAS GH. Conceived the typological study: MAS. Developed the data matrix: MAS. Coded data from published sources: MAS. Verified and contributed Na-Dene coding based on unpublished sources in the Alaska Native Language Archive and Yeniseian from published Grammars: GH. Analyzed the data: MAS. Generated the figures: MAS.

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